Tissue engineered spinal discs as a replacement for degenerated intervertebral discs

Spinal fusion surgery is often the answer to cases of severe intervertebral disc degeneration where the cushioning that sits between the spinal vertebrae becomes damaged, causing patients to experience back and neck pain. However, the surgery does not restore native structure or mechanical function. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is due to combination of

The unique metabolic properties of leukemia stem cells are proving to be their Achilles’ heel

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by an expansion of abnormal undifferentiated myeloblast due to an acquired mutation in blood-forming cells from the bone marrow, resulting in impaired hematopoiesis. The typical treatment for AML is induction chemotherapy but refractory disease is common, and relapse can occur causing initial and subsequent treatments to fail. This is

Baseline cytokine levels may predict the development of immune-mediated adverse events following immunotherapy

The development of immunotherapy is one of the greatest advances in cancer treatment, but up to 40% of cancer patients on immune checkpoint inhibitors develop clinically significant immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and up to 80% of individuals receiving checkpoint inhibitors experience some form of irAE. Predicting which patients will react negatively in response to immunotherapy

Oxygen inhibition controls rigidity of 3D bioprinted material to mimic heterogenous tissue environments

Tissue engineering has made extensive advances in the creation of biomaterials and scaffolds to better study the effects of treatments and therapies in vitro, but the spatial control over mechanical heterogeneity is a characteristic that scientists have struggled to achieve. The emergent rise of 3D printing has led to greater interest in 3D bioprinting through

Therapeutic peptides anchored to enveloped viruses boost T cell immunotherapy

Cancer can exploit immune regulatory checkpoints molecules by inhibiting anti-tumor immune responses from T cells. These immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) antibodies that activate anti-tumor immune responses can create durable responses in 10%–20% of cancer patients, but the remaining 80%–90% of the patients do not respond, driving the need to find novel combination therapies that increase

Olfactory cells can act as “Trojan Horse” to deliver anticancer payload to the brain

Glioblastomas are an aggressive form of primary tumors that arise in the central nervous system. Glioblastomas are resistant to current modalities of treatment (i.e. surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy) and have one of the worst 5-year survival rates. One challenge in treating glioblastomas is delivering anticancer agents to the brain, which is protected by the

Immunotherapy crosses blood-brain barrier to target glioblastoma

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) therapies have proved remarkably effective against leukemia and lymphoma, but for these therapies to target other types of cancer, there are still hurdles to overcome. Brain cancer is particularly challenging for immunotherapies due to the blood-brain barrier. This semi-permeable barrier tightly regulates the homeostasis of the central nervous