Tissue engineered spinal discs as a replacement for degenerated intervertebral discs

Spinal fusion surgery is often the answer to cases of severe intervertebral disc degeneration where the cushioning that sits between the spinal vertebrae becomes damaged, causing patients to experience back and neck pain. However, the surgery does not restore native structure or mechanical function. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is due to combination of